For Entry-level, Intermediate, and Experienced Professionals
As the world increasingly moves towards automation, manual testing still has a place in the world of software testing. In fact, it is often seen as a complement to automation testing. As a result, manual QA specialists are in high demand.
If you plan to pursue a career in manual testing, you have come to the right place! In this article, we will go over questions and answers for a manual testing interview. Whether you are a novice, intermediate, or experienced manual tester, this article has something for you.
Top Manual QA Testing Interview Questions and Answers of 2022Interview Questions for Beginners
1. What is software testing?
Software testing is a process that ensures the developed software meets all specified requirements. Testing evaluates a system in terms of its usability, accuracy, completeness, efficiency, and so on.
2. Can you define the key terminology used in the testing process?
- Test case execution signifies the successful conclusion of a full test cycle following the final bug fix.
- A test deadline is the end date for the validation stage and declares validation complete if no critical or high-priority defects remain.
- The code coverage (CC) ratio is the percentage of code covered by automated tests. The team may end validation upon reaching the desired code coverage (CC) ratio.
3. What are the different test levels?
The four test levels are as follows:
- Unit/component/program/module testing examines each unit or component of a software application.
- Integration testing validates the data flow from one module or component to another.
- System testing checks functional and non-functional software requirements and tests the application as a whole system.
- Acceptance testing condenses all previous testing processes to determine if a specification or requirement has been met.
4. What is a test plan, and what does it include?
A test plan documents all potential testing activities to ensure the quality of a product. It compiles information from the product description, requirements, and use case documents such as:
- Testing objectives
- Test scope
- Testing time frame
- Reason for testing
- Criteria for entrance and exit
- Risk factors
5. What is test coverage?
Test coverage is a quality metric that shows completed testing as a percentage. It is used to identify missing test cases in both functional and non-functional testing.
6. What are the different types of software testing?
QA specialists use a wide variety of approaches when testing software, including:
- Unit testing
- Integration testing
- Regression testing
- Shakeout testing
- Smoke testing
- Functional testing
- Performance testing:
- Load testing
- Stress testing
- Endurance testing
- Alpha and beta testing
- System testing
7. Can testing be performed at any stage?
System testing should begin after all modules are in place and functioning correctly. However, system testing should be completed before user acceptance testing (UAT).
8. What is STLC?
The software testing life cycle (STLC) is a framework for organizing and managing the testing process that facilitates the execution of tests in a planned and systematic manner to ensure product quality.
Key components of the STLC include:
- Requirement analysis
- Test planning
- Test case development
- Environment setup
- Test execution
- Test cycle closure
9. What do the terms verification and validation mean in software testing?
In software testing, verification is conducted during the development process to confirm that a product aligns with specifications and uses standard development procedures. It includes the following activities:
Validation is used on a developed product to confirm it is bug-free and performing as expected. Validation involves the following:
- Functional testing
- Non-functional testing
10. What is black-box testing? And what are the different types of black-box testing?
Black-box testing is a software testing approach where testers assess software functionality in accordance with business requirements. Testers simulate the end user's perspective by evaluating a program without using its internal structure or code.
The different black-box testing techniques are:
- Equivalence partitioning
- Boundary value analysis
- Cause-effect graphing
11. What is white-box testing? And what are the types of white-box testing?
White-box testing involves selecting test cases based on an analysis of a component or system's internal structure, such as code coverage, branch coverage, path coverage, condition coverage, and so on. It is also known as code-based testing or structural testing.
Types of white-box testing include:
- Statement coverage
- Decision coverage
12. What are the steps of white-box testing?
White-box testing verifies the following software attributes:
- Code security flaws
- Incomplete or broken code paths
- Structure flow as specified in the document
- Outputs anticipated
- Conditional loops in the code
- 100% testing and line-by-line coding
13. What is data flow testing?
Data flow testing is a type of white-box testing that evaluates data flow in relation to code variables. It examines variable initialization and verifies values at each instance.
It requires the following attributes:
- Module input
- The testing control flow path
- A pair of appropriate variable definitions and their applications
- The anticipated outcome of the test case
14. What is a traceability matrix?
A traceability matrix is a document used in software development, typically in table form, to help determine the completeness of a relationship between test cases and requirements.
15. What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing?
Unit testing is a type of software testing used to verify that a small piece of code is functioning properly.
As its name implies, integration testing is a type of software testing that checks the functionality of the interface between two software units or modules. In some cases, it can encompass the entire application.
16. What is Agile testing?
Agile testing is a software testing approach that takes the end user's perspective. The QA team can begin testing earlier without waiting for the development team to finish writing code. As a result, development and testing processes can happen simultaneously.
17. What is the objective of end-to-end testing?
An end-to-end testing strategy encompasses all possible flows of an application. End-to-end testing aims to identify software dependencies and verify that the correct input passes among different software modules and subsystems.
Interview Questions for Intermediate Manual Testers
1. How would you achieve 100 percent testing coverage? Is it possible?
It is considered impossible to test every aspect of a product. Here are the two main reasons you can never fully test software:
- Software specifications can be subjective, leading to a wide range of interpretations.
- A software program may require an excessive number of inputs, outputs, and path combinations.
However, if you follow the steps below, you can get close to 100 percent coverage:
- Set hard limits on the following variables:
- Percentage of successful test cases
- Number of bugs identified
- Set a red flag if you meet any of the following conditions:
- Expended test budget
- Missed deadlines
- Set a green flag if you meet any of the following conditions:
- Test cases cover the entire functionality
- Major bugs have CLOSED status
2. What are the differences between data-driven testing and retesting?
Retesting refers to double-checking newly fixed bugs after the development team has made their changes. Retesting is a manual process that involves testing an application with only one new set of data. During data-driven testing, the application is evaluated using multiple test data sets and a variety of values.
3. What are the differences between retesting and regression testing?
The following are some distinctions between retesting and regression testing:
- Retesting ensures that defects are fixed, whereas regression testing checks that a bug fix did not adversely affect other parts of the application.
- Regression testing ensures that passed test cases are re-executed, whereas retesting involves executing failed test cases.
- Retesting has a higher priority than regression testing, but both can sometimes be executed simultaneously.
4. What is the difference between a test driver and a test stub?
A test driver is the piece of code responsible for making the call to the system or program being tested. It is often used in bottom-up testing. A test stub is a dummy program that works alongside an application to complete its functionality and applies to testing that employs a top-down approach.
5. What is the difference between UAT and system testing?
System testing, also known as end-to-end testing, identifies defects when the system is tested as a whole. In this type of testing, the entire application is flawed.
User acceptance testing (UAT) puts a product through a series of specific tests to ensure that it meets the specifications.
6. What steps should you take if you discover a bug?
Take the following steps when a bug occurs:
- Run additional tests to ensure that the problem is well-defined.
- Perform a few more tests to ensure that the same issue does not occur with different inputs.
- Specify and report the bug once its full scope has been determined.
7. How do you test a product when the requirements are still being finalized?
If a product lacks the necessary specifications, it is possible to create a test plan based on assumptions about the product. However, these assumptions should be thoroughly documented in the test plan.
8. What would you do without the proper testing documentation?
When official documents like the system requirement specification or the feature description document are unavailable, quality assurance specialists may have to rely on the following alternatives:
- Previous application versions
- Emails or any other type of communication between members of the team
Talking to developers or business analysts can also help clarify or improve your understanding.
If none of these alternatives help, think about the application based on your experience and make a basic set of test scripts. When you get to the testing phase, you can perform test case management to fine-tune your existing scripts and create documentation for the next phases.
9. Can you list the main challenges of software testing?
- The absence of standard documentation
- Insufficient number of skilled testers
- Time limitations and strict deadlines
- Insufficient testing and an inadequate number of test cases
10. What are the types of functional testing?
- Unit testing
- Smoke testing
- User acceptance testing
- Sanity testing
- Interface testing
- Integration testing
- System testing
- Regression testing
11.What is the difference between functional and non-functional testing?
Functional testing aims to determine how well the software or application functions, in other words, what the product does. Functional testing is performed in accordance with business requirements, and actual test results are compared to expected results.
Non-functional testing ensures that an app always works smoothly and efficiently, as the user expects. All test cases are built around the user's expectations and performance needs. This type of testing evaluates the software's response time and speed under specific conditions.
12. What is the difference between the STLC (software testing life cycle) and SDLC (software development life cycle)?
The software testing life cycle (STLC) is a series of activities that take place during the software testing process. The software development life cycle (SDLC) is a series of activities carried out during the software development process.
Thus, the SDLC relates primarily to software development, whereas the STLC relates to the process of software testing.
13. What does a fault mean in software testing?
A fault is a condition where software fails to execute while carrying out the specified function or the function in question.
14. What is the difference between a bug, a defect, an error, and a failure?
- An error is a mistake made by a programmer while coding.
- A defect is a flaw found by a tester during the development phase.
- A bug is a mistake found during testing and confirmed by the development team.
- A failure is defined as an error discovered by the end user.
15. How do severity and priority relate to one another?
The severity of a bug indicates its significance and effect on the software. Priority is a parameter that specifies the order in which bugs are addressed. In this way, severity is related to quality standards, whereas priority is related to scheduling software defects that need to be fixed.
16. What are the various types of severity?
Depending on the context, a bug's severity can be low, moderate, or high. A few instances are as follows:
- User interface defects – Low
- Boundary-related defects – Medium
- Error handling defects – Medium
- Calculation defects – High
- Misinterpreted data – High
- Hardware failures – High
- Compatibility issues – High
- Control flow defects – High
- Load conditions – High
Interview Questions for Experienced Manual Testers
1. What skills should an experienced test lead or quality assurance professional have?
- Knowledge of software testing methodologies
- Ability to increase productivity and team cooperation
- Ability to improve collaboration between QA and Dev engineers
- Ability to offer suggestions for improving QA processes
- Ability to lead RCA meetings and reach conclusions
- Outstanding written and interpersonal communication skills
- Capacity for rapid learning and team member coaching
2. What is the process of creating a test script?
The process of writing a test script can be divided into three main steps:
- Step 1: Gain a complete understanding of the application. Thoroughly read the required documents. In the absence of documentation, you can use other available references, such as previous versions of the application, wireframes, or screenshots.
- Step 2: Identify test requirements. At this stage, you should identify what to test by creating a list of application areas that will require testing.
- Step 3: Make a test plan and determine test data. Once you have the test requirements, you can focus on how to test them. This stage entails writing detailed instructions on how to test a specific feature, what data to enter, and the expected outcome.
After these three steps are completed, you can start testing your application.
3. What is the defect detection percentage in software testing? And how do you calculate it?
The ratio of pre-release bugs detected to post-release customer reports is known as the defect detection percentage (DDP). Its purpose is to evaluate the efficiency of the testing process.
Suppose the QA team found 52 issues during testing, and the customer found another 20 after the release. In this case, the DDP would be 52 / (52 + 20) = 72%.
4. What is the definition of defect removal efficiency in software testing? And how do you calculate it?
Defect removal efficiency (DRE) measures the development team's ability to resolve issues before release. It is calculated as the ratio of fixed defects to the total number of issues found.
DRE’s formula: DRE= (Number of defects found internally/ Number of defects found internally + Number of defects found externally) × 100.
For example, if 89 defects were discovered during the testing cycle and 75 were fixed, then the DRE would be 64/89 = 83%.
5. How do you maximize the output of an offshore team?
The key is getting everyone involved in reviewing test scripts, attending defect meetings, and participating in knowledge transfer sessions so that the whole team understands the application thoroughly.
Promoting teamwork and cooperation can improve team unity, and regular follow-up meetings help keep projects running smoothly.
6. What are the roles and responsibilities of an on-site coordinator?
The on-site coordinator serves as a point of contact for the offshore team and the client regarding the testing engagement. Their responsibilities usually include:
- Knowledge Transfer (KT) between offshore clients
- Preparing the testing environment
- Smoke testing and sanity testing
- Review of bugs discovered by the offshore team
- Assigning bugs to the relevant developer
- Providing metrics
- Signing off
7. How do you deal with inconsistent bugs?
Every bug, whether found on-site or offshore and repeatable or not, must be documented and analyzed. Instead of simply reporting issues, testers can add real value by getting involved in determining what caused the bugs.
Here are some strategies for dealing with inconsistent bugs:
- The on-site and offshore teams should adhere to a policy of taking screenshots for any encountered error, whether repeatable or not.
- Teams should search for any logs, system files, or other potential sources for the problem.
- After implementing these measures, if the teams cannot determine the cause of the error or when it occurs, they must notify the developer and provide as much detail as possible.
8. How do you test an application with video or audio content?
When testing an application with audio or video, consider the following key elements:
- Access levels (restricted or unrestricted by passwords)
- Various types of environments
- Compatibility with browsers
- Display resolutions
- Internet connection speeds
- The specific options on a video, such as play, stop, and mute
- Video size
- Comments on the videos (limits on comment length and number of comments allowed)
- Reactions to the video
- Interoperability with social networking websites
- Speed of buffering
9. What factors would make you prefer automated testing over manual testing?
Choose automated testing over manual testing if:
- Testing must be done regularly.
- Tests involve repetitive procedures.
- Tests are carried out in a standard runtime environment.
- Automating tasks speeds up the process.
- Automation increases reusability.
- Automated reports are available for every execution.
- Minor releases (like service packs) contain minor bug fixes.
10. What is the process for testing a mobile application?
- Check to see if the app is compatible with multiple carriers and devices.
- Examine the usability of features on various mobile devices.
- Test the app on different mobile platforms, including Android and iOS.
- Examine installation and uninstallation processes, and make sure the app launches with and without a network.
- Examine how the app performs with various network connections, such as WiFi, 2G, and 5G.
- Debug the app with the iOS iPhone configuration utility and Android Device Monitor logs.
Manual testing is a great way to stay ahead of the curve in the ever-changing world of software development. We hope our list of manual testing questions and answers will help you excel in your manual testing career for the year 2023 and beyond.
For those just thinking about getting into this career, we have something for you too! With the right training, you can start earning a $70,000+ salary after just two months of training. Check out our Manual Tester Training and start learning today!